List of Articles
Effect of Alkaline Water Water Intake on Lifespan of Auto Immune Disease Prone Mice
Clinical Improvements Obtained From the Intake of Ionised Water
Ionised Water for Prevention of Diseases
Alkaline Water, Cluster Water, Microcluster Water, Reduced water
Dr Baroody's Acid Test
Understanding Alkaline Water
Effect of Alkaline Water Water Intake on Lifespan of Auto Immune Disease Prone Mice
- Research From University of Texas.
Recent studies on ionised alkaline water and mice showed that mice drinking ionised alkaline water increased their lifespan. The study was undertaken in two strains of autoimmune disease prone mice to establish the spontaneous disease process and longevity.
Mice were provide with water and chow diet ad libitum and weekly body weights and spontaneous deaths were recorded.
The mean survival times were recorded:
1. Tap Water pH = 7.5: 235 days
2. Ionised Water pH = 9.00: 287 days
3. Ionised Water pH = 10.00 or greater: 302 days
This is an average increase of about 30% longer life!
The increased lifespan appears to be related to the reduced levels of free radicals and antioxidant enzyme levels. In summary, ionised alkaline water inhibits autoimmune disease and increases lifespan.
Clinical Improvements Obtained From the Intake of Ionised Water
- (1985-2000) HAYASHI, Hidemitsu, M.D.,Water Institute, & KAWAMURA, Munenori, M.D., Kyowa Medical Clinic,
1. Improvement of blood glucose and HbAIC levels in diabetes mellitus.
2. Improvement of peripheral circulation in diabetic gangrene.
3. Improvement of uric acid levels in gout.
4. Improvement of liver function in hepatic disease, cirrhosis of liver, hepatitis.
5. Improvement of gastroduodenal ulcers and prevention of recurrences.
6. Improvement of cholesterol level; hypertension, angina, myocardial infarction.
7. Improvement of hypersensitive disorders; atopic dermatitis, asthma, urticaria.
8. Improvement of autoimmune disorders; rheumatism, collagen disease, SLE.
9. Improvement of so called specific diseases; Behcet's syndrome, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, Kawasaki's disease.
10. Improvement of malignant tumours of liver; hepatoma, metastatic tumours.
11. Improvement of general malaise, chronic constipation & diarrhea as well as persistent diarrhea occurred after gastric resection.
12. Improvement of dehydration in infants with vomiting and diarrhea caused by viral infection.
13. Improvement of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns
14. Experiences of pregnant women who took reduced water during their pregnancy; almost no emesis, smooth delivery, slight jaundice, enough lactation, smooth and satisfactory growth of newborns.
Devices to produce reduced water were introduced into our clinic in May 1985. Based on the clinical experiences obtained in the past 15 years, it can be said that introduction of electrolyzed-reduced water for drinking and cooking purpose for inpatients should be the very prerequisite in daily medical practices.
The Ministry of Health and Welfare in Japan announced in 1965 that the intake of reduced water is effective for restoration of intestinal flora metabolism.
Ionised Water for Prevention of Diseases
Dr.Sanetaka Shirahata, Graduate school of Genetic Resources Technology, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan. This is a part paper delivered by Dr Shirahata to the Functional Water Symposium in Tokyo.
It has long been established that reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause many types of damage to biomolecules and cellular structures, that, in turn result in the development of a variety of pathologic states such as diabetes, cancer and aging. Ionised water is defined as anti-oxidative water produced by reduction of water. Ionised (electrolyzed reduced water (ERW)) has been demonstrated to be hydrogen-rich water and can scavenge ROS in vitro (Shirahata et al., 1997).
The reduction of proton in water to active hydrogen (atomic hydrogen, hydrogen radical) that can scavenge ROS is very easily caused by a weak current, compared to oxidation of hydroxyl ion to oxygen molecule. Activation of water by magnetic field, collision, minerals etc. will also produce reduced water containing active hydrogen and/or hydrogen molecule. Several natural waters such as Hita Tenryosui water drawn from deep underground in Hita city in Japan, Nordenau water in Germany and Tlacote water in Mexico are known to alleviate various diseases. We have developed a sensitive method by which we can detect active hydrogen existing in ionised water, and have demonstrated that not only ERW but also natural ionised waters described above contain active hydrogen and scavenge ROS in cultured cells. ROS is known to cause reduction of glucose uptake by inhibiting the insulin-signalling pathway in cultured cells. Ionised water scavenged intracellular ROS and stimulated glucose uptake in the presence or absence of insulin in both rat L6 skeletal muscle cells and mouse 3T3/L1 adipocytes. This insulin-like activity of ionised water was inhibited by wortmannin that is specific inhibitor of PI-3 kinase, a key molecule in insulin signalling pathways.
Ionised water protected insulin-responsive cells from sugar toxicity and improved the damaged sugar tolerance of type 2 diabetes model mice, suggesting that reduced water may improve insulin-independent diabetes mellitus.
Cancer cells are generally exposed to high oxidative stress. Ionised water causes impaired tumour phenotypes of human cancer cells, such as reduced growth rate, orphological changes, reduced colony formation ability in soft agar, passage number-dependent telomere shortening, reduced binding abilities of telomere binding proteins and suppressed metastasis. Ionised water suppressed the growth of cancer cells transplanted into mice, demonstrating their anticancer effects in vivo.
Ionised water will be applicable to not only medicine but also food industries, agriculture, and manufacturing industries.
Shirahata, S. et al.: Electrolyzed reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 234, 269-274, 1997.
Alkaline Water, Cluster Water, Microcluster Water, Reduced water - Hubert Choi
Ionized water is by far the most superior drinking water available. Ionized water has several names. It is electronically enhanced water that has been run over positive and negative electrodes and become ionized, Which then is separated into alkaline and acidic water. They are created simultaneously, 70% Alkaline water and 30% Acid water.
Both Waters have extraordinary properties and benefits, however, their respective uses could not be more different. The Alkaline Water we drink, the Acid water we use on the outside of our bodies, as well as many other things. Ionized Water has a beneficial effect on everything it comes in contact with as long as is used properly. For instance, We would not want to drink the acid water because it is an oxidant and we would be drinking free radicals, unstable oxygen molecules.
Ionized water is one of the significant preventative health advances of our generation. It is a Powerful Antioxidant, which also provides our body with an abundance of oxygen which in turn gives us energy. It Balances our Body pH, which helps prevent disease because it is Alkaline. It is a Powerful Detoxifier, And a Superior Hydrator, up to six times more hydrating than conventional water.
It is true that drinking ionized water gives you energy. On the surface, it seems like an outrageous claim that drinking water can give you energy. However, we all know that providing the body with oxygen will give us energy. Ionized water possesses an abundance of oxygen, which is one of the reasons bacteria does not live in Alkaline Ionized Water much more than 40 seconds. The other reason is because the negative ORP is a hostile environment to bacteria.
Energy that is derived from oxygen is the best energy a person can have because it has not been derived from an artificial source such as caffeine. Sugar or other stimulants, which are more like rushes that invariably end in some kind of crash.
When we eat too much sugar for instance, our body produces insulin to counteract the sudden influx of excess sugar and we experience a sugar/insulin crash. A few too many of those and you end up a diabetic, especially if it tends to run in the family.
However, with oxygen its an entirely different story. You never get a rush and you never crash. Energy derived from oxygen is natural. Oxygen makes you alert and invigorated. It picks you up slowly and let you down slowly as it is used up. People who drink Ionized Water on a regular basis don’t notice how much energy it does give them until the fourth or fifth day after they stop drinking it.
For someone with cancer, the high oxygen level found in Ionized Water is particularly helpful since Oxygen destroys cancer cells which is why cancer patients are often tired all the time. By drinking Ionized Water on a regular basis the amount of oxygen is a poison to bacteria and the more we can get into our blood stream the better.
Ionized water has two Antioxidant qualities or components to it. Ionize means to gain or lose an electron. In the case of Ionized water, an electron is grabbed from one oxygen molecule and donated to another making that oxygen molecule become an Antioxidant.
All Antioxidants have this property of possessing an extra electron such as Vitamins A, C and E. It is miraculous that normal tap water can be turned into an Antioxidant. Not only that, but it is an efficient Antioxidant because it is a liquid with small water molecule clusters and thus is more easily absorbed into the body.
Virtually all liquids have an Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP), which is the mill voltage it possesses. Normal tap water has an 300 to 400 ORP, meaning that the potential for reducing oxidation is nonexistent. Only a negative ORP can reduce or negate oxidation. Alkaline Ionized Water has a –350 to –250 ORP, depending in part on the amount of minerals in the source water and which level the unit is on. This means it has a very high potential for reducing oxidation. Fresh squeezed orange juice has a –250 ORP, as do most other fresh squeezed juices asd vegetables. However, if they have been pasteurized or otherwise processed, the antioxidant and negative ORP properties have been removed from the food as well as all its rejuvenating properties.
Oxidization means to decay or age. As things oxidize, the ORP rises. A higher ORP also retards bacterial growth and if high enough, it will kill bacteria. Rust is metal that has oxidized. In the human body oxidation is caused by free radical damage.
Free radicals are oxygen molecules that have lost an electron and become unstable. They are caused by pollution, stress and poor diet. Essentially all diseases arise from the environment.
Because of the predominance of hydroxyl ions in Ionized Water, the water becomes Alkaline, meaning it has a high pH, somewhere between 8 and 10 depending on which level the Water Ioniser is on. At a pH 10, Ionized Water begin to taste salty so there is a limit to how strong Ionized Water should be consumed even though it is not harmful to you at this level. A pH of 9.5 is sufficiently high enough to satisfy the body.
The ease at which a pH of 10 or higher is achieved will depend on how slow the water runs through the Water Ioniser and how high the mineral content of the source water is.
The more minerals you have in the source water, the stronger ionization you will have. If you tried to use purified water, either distilled or reverse osmosis which has no mineral content, no ionization would occur.
There are alkaline mineral and acid minerals and ionization will become stronger on the alkaline side if there alkaline minerals present and stronger on the acid side if there are acid minerals present.
The fact that the Ionized Water we drink is alkaline is very important because disease thrive in an acidic environment and will not flourish and thrive in an alkaline environment.
Ionized Water is sometimes called reduced water because typically water molecules group together in clusters of 10 to 13 molecules. Ionized Water molecule clusters are split in half and grouped into 5-6 water molecules, thus it is Reduced in size. The Ionized Water molecule cluster has been changed from an irregular shape to a regular hexagonal shape that passes through our body tissue much more efficiently than conventional water. It is this smaller, regular sharp that hydrates anything much more efficiently than conventional water.
All Water Ioniser currently manufactured have more than one level of ionization strength. Some of the older Water Ionisers have only one level, which is very limiting, especially after first purchasing a Water Ioniser. The better models have 4 or 5 levels of strength which allows a person to ease into Ionized Water when they first start drinking it. The detoxification effect of Ionized Water requires some people to start drinking it rather weak and building the strength of the water over time.
Headaches and diarrhea are common detoxification symptoms. The better Water Ionisers have four or five level, each level increasing in strength until pH9.5-10 is reached (depending on source water).
Although we can not drink too much Ionized Water once the body has acclimatised to it, many people need to start by drinking Ionized Water at a weak level, meaning that only a small percentage of the water has been ionized. The more toxins that a person has in their body, the weaker they should start drinking Ionized water so the detoxification effects are kept to a minimum.
Sulfur, Iodine, Chlorine, Phosphorous, Bromine, Copper, Silicon, Fluorine. These are known as acid-forming minerals. These minerals will strengthen the acid side of the Ionized Water by forming more hydrogen ions.
One of the keys to Great Health is Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Iron and Manganese. There are known as alkaline-forming minerals. There minerals will strengthen the alkaline side of the Ionized Water by forming more hydroxyl ions. When these minerals are used by the body they leave behind an alkaline ash in the urine. For instance, each time the heart attack, standard procedure when you arrive at the hospital is to put the victim on magnesium drip.
All ingested substances and all situation (physical, emotional, or mental) that affect the body, leave either an alkaline or acid ash residue in the urine. Thus, if a person has created his or her own acidic environment, it can spread further until it consumes the body. When many cancer patients are near death, their bodies begin to produce ammonia as a natural chemical reaction in order to counteract the acidic enviroment that has been created by the cancer. This is the bad odor that many cancer victims have as they are nearing death.
Acid wastes literally attacks the joints, tissues, muscles, organs and glands causing minor to major dysfunction.
At this time, the medical establishment in the Unite States and many other countries have not accepted the idea that body pH (alkalinity and acidity) and disease walk hand in hand. In fact, I can say without hesitation that if you catch a cold and you are miserable, you will feel much better if you simply raise the pH of your body by drinking ionized water eating as many fresh fruits, vegetables and herbs as you can. By raising the pH, you are giving your body its best chance to fight the virus that has invaded it with the defenses it has in its arsenal. We call that our immune system, which is at its best when the body is Alkaline.
Alkaline Water - Gives you lots of Energy!
Removes acidic waste from the body
Hydrates body up to three times more effectively than conventional water
Nutrients are absorbed more efficiently into the body.
Foods cooked with ionized water taste better.
Nutrients from foods and drinks are absorbed better by the body.
Minerals that are ionized as more easily assimilated by the body.
Powders such as flour are mixed more thoroughly and smoothly.
Ionized water boils faster/cools faster.
Promotes regularity and overall good digestion.
Promotes overall health and healing by bringing the body into balance.
Benefits of Acid Water
Having acid water on tap is worth the price of a Water Ionizer by itself. It has an extraordinary effect on many things it is used for. First of all, It is an oxidant. When Acid Water is freshly made. Small bubbles are also present in the water, but not as many as on the alkaline side, which is far more cloudy. However, they are hydrogen ions on the acid water side, which are free radicals. For that reason, we should not drink Acid Water.
Acid Water kills most bacteria on contact. This of course would depend on the strength of the acid water, how high the ORP is and how low the pH. For instance, an ORP of 1100 and a pH of 2.5 would be considered anti-microbial, meaning that it would kill all bacteria on contact regardless of the kind of bacteria. Chlorine, which is an oxidant, has a one second bacterial kill rete with an ORP of 700.
In Japan, Acid Ioniser Water is used effectively as on golf courses as a fertilizer and pesticide. Acid water has a very nice conditioning effect on the skin and hair because both are rather acid. The skin has a pH of about 4.7, the hair about 5.6.
Acid Minerals (Acid-Binding Minerals)Phosphorous, Iodine, Bromine, Copper, Silicon, Fluorine (Fluoride) and Sulfur. Several of these minerals our body needs in abundance. Having a copper deficiency, for instance, is responsible in part for people’s hair graying. However, just by taking a supplement with copper in it will not necessarily be readily assimilated into the body.
Acid Water - External Use Only – Do Not Drink
Kills bacteria on contact.
Help heal cuts, blisters, scraps, rashes, even more serious wounds.
Helps heal diabetic ulcers.
Provides excellent relief from Mosquito Bites & Bee Stings.
Provide excellent relief from Poison lvy & Poison Oak.
Cleans hair and makes it feel great after rinsing.
Excellent water for car, truck or boat batteries.
Great for Skin.
Relieves chapped hands & dry, itchy skin
Effectively removes plaque from teeth. Use it instead of toothpaste.
Wash vegetables, fruits, meats and fish with it to kill bacteria.
Gargle with it to relieve sore throats and mouth sores.
Works as an astringent to tighten skin.
Excellent treatment for acne, eczema and other skin diseases.
Excellent treatment for fungus such as athletes foot.
Promotes plant growth and general health, herbs and wheat grass.
Extends the life of cut flowers.
Reverse Aging - Sang Whang
Mr. Sang Whang is a successful inventor, scientist, and engineer. Mr. Whang has discovered a new theory of aging and reverse aging. He explains the health and aging processes in layman terms in his book, Reverse Aging. Below is an excerpt from that book.
In order to learn how to get younger, we must understand the process of aging. Handling natural health improvement devices developed in Japan a few years, I have witnessed as well as personally experienced many mysterious phenomenon in the reverse aging effect. Being a scientist, engineer, and inventor, I have tried to understand and explain the phenomenon scientifically, applying the scientific principles of those non-drug, natural health improvement devices. During the course of the study, I came to a realization of what the human aging process is about. The great news is that, with this new theory, the reverse aging process can be explained, and ANYBODY CAN GET YOUNGER IF HE OR SHE SO DESIRES.
The Aging Process
We get old because we are not disposing of all the internally generated wastes and toxins, and accumulate the leftovers within our body. For our body to function and to maintain body temperature, we burn nutrients within our cells. The main ingredients of all foods, expensive or inexpensive, gourmet or junk, vegetable or meat, alkaline or acid, are either carbohydrates, proteins or fats. And they are nothing but the combinations of four elements: carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen. After these nutrients are burnt (oxidized) in the cells, they all turn into organic acids: carbonic acids, uric acids, lactic acids, fatty acids, ammonia, etc. Fats are acidic even before oxidation. The Chinese word for oxygen is written with two characters, "sahn-so". They literally mean "acid root". These acidic wastes and toxins are disposed out of the body in liquid form, as urine or perspiration, after first being dissolved into the blood. Every element within our body was place there by the blood and can come out of there by first being dissolved into the blood and then being carried out. If anyone loses ten pounds by any dietary means, it can be said that most of that ten pounds came out through the urine. Unfortunately, due to our life styles and environments (ie., too much ingestion, overwork, over indulgence, not enough rest, staying up late, not enough exercise, inadequate water consumption, smoking, pollution, etc.) the body cannot get rid of all the acidic waste products that it generates within. We accumulate these left over waste products somewhere within our body. This is the process of getting old. To make matters worse, mixed with these organic acids are inorganic acid minerals such as chlorine, phosphor, and sulfur that come in with most of our acidic foods: meats, grains and root crops. We don't eat enough of alkaline foods such as fruits and vegetables that contain inorganic alkaline minerals: calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, etc. Although the amounts of inorganic minerals are small compared with the organic acid wastes that the body produces, they contribute more towards the acid side. However, one important thing to note is that even if one does not eat any acidic food at all, as long as carbohydrates and proteins are consumed, the body produces much more acidic wastes than the inorganic alkaline minerals can counteract.
We are born with high alkaline blood pH of 7.44. As we get older, the blood pH drops down to 7.35 or below. The blood pH referred to here is the artery blood pH. The difference of 0.09 in pH value seems very small but since pH is logarithmic, the amount of hydroxyl ion (OH-) in 7.44 pH is 1.23 times that of 7.35 pH, because 10=1.2303. The hydroxyl ion is an oxygen donor while the hydrogen ion (H+) is an oxygen taker. In other words, young people carry 23% more of the oxygen donors in their blood than older people. No wonder they are more energetic. Uric acid is nearly insoluble in water, alcohol, and ether, but soluble in solutions of alkaline salts. In other words, it becomes soluble in alkaline water. Arthritis and gout are caused by uric acid deposited between the joints, non-dissolved due to the low alkalinity of an older person's blood. Drinking acid-free alkaline water will gradually elevate one's blood pH and the gout will disappear naturally. (More about this acid free alkaline water later)
As we live with poor waste disposal systems for a long period of time, some parts of our body build up more acids than others, and they can clog up capillary vessels around those acidic areas. This causes some body organs to function in a sluggish manner. We feel tired and run down sometimes for no reason whatsoever, and adult diseases such as high blood pressure, arthritis, diabetes, asthma, allergies, etc. start to set in. WE SIMPLY ACCEPT THESE PHENOMENA AS "GETTING OLD." In some extreme cases, the build up of acidic elements are so great that it starts to destroy healthy cells around them. Healthy cells must maintain a slightly alkaline pH level. Some cells change their formula in order to survive in an acidic environment. If they are successful, this is the beginning of cancer. Cancer cells are acidic while healthy cells are alkaline. Even if the cancerous tumours are completely removed surgically, as long as the acidic conditions in the area remain, the chances are that new tumours will develop around the same area. Exactly where the left over waste products are accumulated may very according to every individual. However, the parts of the body where wastes accumulate first may determine what kind of adult disease that individual may develop first. Within one family, the storage places may be similar. This may explain the hereditary effects of certain adult diseases.
The Reverse Aging Process
Because the accumulation of waste products inside the body is the aging process, helping the body to get rid of the OLD waste products is the reverse aging process. This reverse aging process takes two steps. The first step is to develop a good disposal system and the second step is to pull out the old wastes from their hiding places.
Development of A Good Disposal System
Since, as mentioned before, the waste disposal is done in liquid form by urine and perspiration, it is imperative that we drink plenty of water. When one is going through any diet program, doctors will advise to drink 8 glasses of water a day. They know the disposal is through urine, but they don't tell you what kind of water to drink. Since all waste products are acidic, the best kind of water is acid free alkaline water. Drinking 4 glasses of this alkaline water is much more effective than 8 glasses of regular, bottled water or filtered tap water. There are devices called water ionisers that split alkaline minerals and acid minerals in regular tap water by electrical means. A quality water ioniser takes in regular tap water which has both acid and alkaline minerals in it and has a typical pH value of 7. The system then releases water with a pH value of 9 or higher with all the alkaline minerals from the original tap water. At the same time it releases acidic water with a pH value of 5 or lower with all the acid minerals in the original tap water. Since this alkaline water has twice as many alkaline minerals as the original water but NO acid minerals, it is more than twice as potent as the original water. Inside our body, it will neutralize only acidic elements and discharge them safely out of the body. Drinking 8 glasses of regular water can leach out acidic wastes as well as some valuable alkaline minerals such as potassium. With alkaline water, 4 glasses are sufficient and there is no worry about losing potassium from your system.
Dr Baroody's Acid Test
Dr Theodore Baroody, in his book “Alkalize or Die”, offers a list of symptoms that may be precipitated by Acidosis:
3. Muscular pain
4. Cold hands and feet
6. Low energy
7. Joint pains that travel
8. Food allergies
9. Chemical sensitivities or odours, gas, heat
11. Panic attacks
12. Pre-menstrual and menstrual cramping
13. Pre-menstrual anxiety and depression
14. Lack of sex drive
19. Hot urine.
20. Strong smelling urine
21. Mild headaches
22. Rapid panting breath
23. Rapid heartbeat
24. Irregular heartbeat
25. White coated tongue
26. Hard to get up
27. Excess Head mucus
28. Metallic taste in mouth
1. Cold sore (Herpes 1 & 11)
3. Loss of memory
4. Loss of concentration
5. Migraine headaches
7. Disturbance in smell, vision, taste.
10. Hay Fever
11. Ear Aches
14. Viral infections (cold, flu)
15. Bacterial Infections (staph, strep)
16. Fungal infections (candida albicans,athlete's foot, vaginal)
20. Urinary infection
23. Excessive failing hair
27. Numbness and tingling
1. Crohn's disease
3. Learning Disabled
4. Hodgkin's Disease
5. Systemic Lupus Erythematosis
6. Multiple Sclerosis
8. Rheumatoid arthritis
9. Myasthenia Gravis
13. All other forms of cancer
Hidemitsu Hayashi, M.D., Heart Surgeon and Director of the Water Institute of Japan
The bodies of all living organisms are composed largely of water. About 70 to 90 percent of all organic matter is water.
The chemical reactions in all plants and animals that support life take place in a water medium. Water not only provides the medium to make these life sustaining reactions possible, but water itself is often an important reactant or product of these reactions. In short, the chemistry of life is water chemistry.
Water is a universal solvent due to the marked molecule and its tendency to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules. One water molecule, expressed with the chemical symbol H20, consists of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom.
Standing alone, the hydrogen atom contains one positive proton at its core with one negative electron revolving around it in a three dimensional shell. Oxygen, on the other hand, contains 8 protons in its nucleus with 8 electrons revolving around it. This is often shown in chemical notation as the letter "0" surrounded by eight dots representing 4 sets of paired electrons.
The single hydrogen electron and the 8 electrons of oxygen are the key to the chemistry of life because this is where hydrogen and oxygen atoms combine to form a water molecule, or split to form ions.
Hydrogen tends to ionize by losing Its electron and form single H+ ions which are simply isolated protons since the hydrogen atom contains no neutrons. A hydrogen bond occurs when the electron of a single hydrogen atom is shared with another electronegative atom such as oxygen that lacks an electron.
In a water molecule, two hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to the oxygen atom. But because the oxygen atom is larger than the hydrogen's, its attraction for the hydrogen's electrons is correspondingly greater so the electrons are drawn closer into the shell of the larger oxygen atom and away from the hydrogen shells. This means that although the water molecule as a whole is stable, the greater mass of the oxygen nucleus tends to draw in all the electrons in the molecule including the shared hydrogen electrons giving the oxygen portions of the molecule a slight electronegative charge.
The shells of the hydrogen atoms, because their electrons are closer to the oxygen, take on a small electropositive charge. This means water molecules have a tendency to form weak bonds with other water molecules because the oxygen end of the molecule is negative and the hydrogen ends are positive.
A hydrogen atom, while remaining covalently bonded to the oxygen of its own molecule, can form a weak bond with the oxygen of another molecule. Similarly, the oxygen end of a molecule can form a weak attachment with the hydrogen ends of other molecules. Because water molecules have this polarity, water is a continuous chemical entity. These weak bonds play a crucial role in stabilizing the shape of many of the large molecules found in living matter. Because these bonds are weak, they are readily broken and reformed during normal physiological reactions. The disassembly and rearrangement of such weak bonds is in essence the chemistry of life.
To illustrate water's ability to break down other substances, consider the simple example of putting a small amount of salt in a glass of tap water. With dry salt (NaCI) the attraction between the electropositive sodium (Na+) and electronegative chlorine (Cl- ) atoms of salt is very strong until it is placed in water. After salt is placed in water, the attraction of the electronegative oxygen of the water molecule for the positively charged chloride ions, and the similar attraction of the electropositive hydrogen ends of the water molecule for the negatively charged chloride ions, are greater than the mutual attraction between the outnumbered NA+ and CL ions. In water the ionic bonds of the sodium chloride molecule are broken easily because of the competitive action of the numerous water molecules.
As we can see from this simple example, even the delicate configuration of individual water molecules enables them to break relatively stronger bonds by conveying on them. This is why we call water the universal solvent. It is a natural solution that breaks down the bonds of larger, more complex molecules. This is the chemistry of life on earth in water and on land.
Oxidation - reduction reactions
Basically, reduction means the addition of an electron (e-), and its converse, oxidation means the removal of an electron. The addition of an electron, reduction, stores energy in the reduced compound. The removal of an electron, oxidation, liberates energy form the oxidized compound. Whenever one substance is reduced, another is oxidized. To clarify these terms, consider any two molecules, A and 9, for example:
When molecules A and B come into contact, here is what happens:
B grabs an electron from molecule A.
Molecule A has been oxidized because it has lost an electron.
The net charge of 8 has been reduced because it has gained a negative electron (e-).
In biological systems, removal or addition of an electron constitutes the most frequent mechanism of oxidation-reduction reactions. These oxidation-reduction reactions are frequently called redox reactions.
Acid and Bases
An acid is a substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions(H+) in water. A base is a substance that decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions, in other words, increasing the concentration of hydroxide ions OH-. The degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution is measured in terms of a value known as pH, which is the negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions:
pH=1/log[H+] =- log[H+]
What is pH?
On the pH scale, which ranges from 0 on the acidic end to 14 on the alkaline end, a solution is neutral if its pH is 7. At pH 7, water donations equal concentrations of H+ and OH- ions. Substances with a pH less than 7 are acidic because they contain a higher concentration of H+ ions. Substances with a pH higher than 7 are alkaline because they contain a higher concentration of OH- that H+. The pH scale is a log scale so a change of one pH unit means a tenfold change in the concentration of hydrogen ions.
Importance of balancing pH
Living things are extremely sensitive to pH and function best (with certain exceptions, such as certain portions of the digestive tract) when solutions are nearly neutral. Most interior living matter (excluding the cell nucleus) has a pH of about 6.8.
Blood plasma and other fluids that surround the cells in the body have a pH of 7.2 to 7.3.
Numerous special mechanisms aid in stabilizing these fluids so that cells will not be subject to appreciable fluctuations in pH. Substances which serve as mechanisms to stabilize pH are called buffers. Buffers have the capacity to bond ions and remove them from solution whenever their concentration begins to rise. Conversely, buffers can release ions whenever their concentration begins to fall. Buffers thus help to minimize the fluctuations in pH. This is an important function because many biochemical reactions normally occurring in living organisms either release or use up ions.
IONIZED WATER THEORY
Why we get sick? - Oxygen: Too much of a good thing?
Oxygen is essential to survival. It is relatively stable in the air, but when too much is absorbed into the body R can become active and unstable and has a tendency to attach itself to any biological molecule, including molecules of healthy cells. The chemical activity of these free radicals is due to one or more pairs of unpaired electrons. About 2% of oxygen we normally breathe becomes active oxygen, and this amount increases to approximately 20% with aerobic exercise.
Such free radicals with unpaired electrons are unstable and have a high oxidation potential, which means they are capable of stealing electrons from other cells. This chemical mechanism is very useful in disinfectants such as hydrogen peroxide and ozone which can be used to sterilize wounds or medical instruments. Inside the body these free radicals are of great benefit due to their ability to attack and eliminate bacteria, virus and other waste products.
Active oxygen in the body
Problems arise, however, when too many of these free radicals are turned loose in the body where they can also damage normal tissue. Putrefaction sets in when microbes in the air invade the proteins, peptide, and amino acids of eggs, fish and meat. The result is an array of unpleasant substances such as:
These substances are also produced naturally in the digestive tract when we digest food, resulting in the unpleasant odor evidenced in feces. Putrefaction of spoiled food is caused by microbes in the air, this natural process is duplicated in the digestive tract by intestinal microbes. All these waste products of digestion are pathogenic, that is, they can cause disease in the body.
Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are tissues toxins that can damage the liver. Histamines, contribute to allergic disorders such as a topic dermatitis, urticaria (hives) and asthma. Indoles and phenols are considered carcinogenic.
Because waste products such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, histamines, phenols and indoles are toxic, the body's defense mechanisms try to eliminate them by releasing neutrophils a (type ofleukocyte, or white corpuscle). These neutrophils produce active oxygen, oddball oxygen molecules that are capable of scavenging out and disintegrating tissues by gathering electrons from the molecules of toxic cells.
Problems arise, however, when too many of these active oxygen molecules, or free radicals, are produced in the body. They are extremely reactive and can also attach themselves to normal, healthy cells and damage them genetically. These active oxygen radicals steal electron from normal, health biological molecules. This electron theft by active oxygen oxidizes tissue and can cause disease.
Effects of Oxidation on Vital Organs
Hepatitis, cirrhosis, cancer
Pancreatitis, diabetes, cancer
Nephritis, nephrosis, cancer
Because active oxygen can damage normal tissue, it is essential to scavenge this active oxygen from the body before it can cause disintegration of healthy tissue. If we can find an effective method to block the oxidation of healthy tissue by active oxygen, then we can attempt to prevent disease.
One way to protect healthy tissue from the ravages of oxidation caused by active oxygen is to provide free electrons to active oxygen radicals, thus neutralizing their high oxidation potential and preventing them from reacting with healthy tissue.
Research on the link between diet and cancer is far from complete, but some evidence indicates that what we eat may affect our susceptibility to cancer. Some foods seem to help defend against cancer, others appear to promote it.
Much of the damage caused by carcinogenic substances in food may come about because of an oxidation reaction in the cell. In this process, an oddball oxygen molecule may damage the cell's genetic code. Some researchers believe that substances that prevent oxidation - called ANTIOXIDANTS - can block the damage. This leads naturally to the theory that the intake of natural antioxidants could be an important aspect of the body's defense against cancer. Substances that some believe inhibit cancer include vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-caroteneselenium, and glutathione (an amino acid). These substances are reducing agents. They supply electrons to fee radicals and block the interaction of free radical with normal tissue.
As we mentioned earlier, the presence of toxic waste products such as hydrogen sulfide. ammonia, histamines, indoles, phenols and scatoles impart an offensive odor to human feces. In the medical profession, it is well known that patients suffering from hepatitis and cirrhosis pass particularly odoriferous stools.
Excessively offensive stools caused by the presence of toxins are indicators of certain diseases, and the body responds to the presence of these toxins by producing neutrophil Ieukocytes to release active oxygen in an attempt to neutralize the damage to organs that can be caused by such waste products. But when an excess amount of such active oxygen is produced, it can damage healthy cells as well as neutralize toxins. This leads us to the conclusion that we can minimize the harmful effect of these active oxygen radicals by reducing them with an ample supply of electrons.
There is no substitute for a healthy balanced diet, especially rich in antioxidant materials such as vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and other foods that are good for us. However, these substances are not the best source of free electrons that can block the oxidation of healthy tissue by active oxygen.
Water treated by electrolysis to increase its reduction potential is the best solution to the problem of providing a safe source of free electrons to block the oxidation of normal tissue by free oxygen radicals. We believe that reduced water, water with an excess of free electrons to donate to active oxygen, is the best solution because:
The reduction potential of water can be dramatically increased over other antioxidants in food or vitamin supplements.
The molecule weight of reduced water is low, making it fast acting and able to reach all tissues of the body in a very short time.
Ionized water is the product of mild electrolysis which takes place in the oonizer unit. The production of Ionized water, its properties, and how it works in the human body are described in the next section. Ionized water is treated tap water that has not only been filtered, but has also been reformed in that it provides reduced water with a large mass of electrons that can be donated to active oxygen in the body to block the oxidation of normal cells.
Normal tap water, for example, with a pH of 7 is approximately neutral on the pH scale of 0 to 14. When measured with an ORP (oxidation potential) meter its redox potential is approximately +400 to +500 mV. Because it has a positive redox potential, it is apt to acquire electrons and oxidize other molecules. Reduced ionized water, on the other hand, has a negative redox potential of approximately -250 to -350 mV. This means it has a large mass of electrons ready to donate to electron thieving active oxygen.
Before discussing the properties of ionized water further, let's take a look at what happens inside the ionizer unit.
The water ionizer unit, slightly taller and thicker than a large dictionary on end, is an electrical appliance connected to your kitchen water supply to perform electrolysis on tap water before you drink it or use it in the kitchen for cooking or cleaning.
A special attachment redirects tap water out of the faucet through a plastic hose into the ionizer. Inside the unit, the water is first filtered through activated charcoal. Next, the filtered water passes into an electrolysis chamber equipped with a platinum-coated titanium electrode where electrolysis takes place.
Cations, positive ions, gather at the negative electrodes to create cathodic water (reduced water). Anions, negatively charged ions gather at the positive electrode to make anodic water (oxidized water).
Through electrolysis, reduced water not only gains an excess amount of electrons (e-), but the cluster of H20 seem to be reduced in size form about 10 to 13 molecules per cluster to 5 to 6 molecules per cluster.
The reduced water comes out of the faucet, and the oxidized water comes out of a separate hose leading into the sink. You can use the reduced water for drinking or cooking. The oxidation potential of the oxidized water makes it a good sterilizing agent, ideal for washing hands, cleaning food or kitchen utensils, and treating minor wounds.
After electrolysis of the water inside the unit, reduced water comes out of the cathodic side and oxidized water comes out of the anodic side. Compare these measurements of these three types of water tap water before electrolysis, the reduced water, and the oxidized water.
Reduction-oxidation (redox) potential
What it Means
+400 to +500 mV
Slight oxidation potential
-250 to -350 mV
Strong reduction potential, contains a mass of electrons that can be donated to free radicals.
+700 to +800 mV
Strong oxidation potential, a shortage of electrons giving it the ability to oxidize and sterilize
Traditionally we have judged the properties of water from the standpoint of pH, in other words whether water is acidic or alkaline. According to Dr. Yoshiaki Matsuo Ph.D., "in my opinion, redox potential is more important than pH. The importance of pH is over emphasized. For example, the average pH of blood is 7.4 and acidosis or alkalosis are defined according to deviation within the range of 7.4 + -0.05. But nothing has been discussed about ORP, or oxidation-reduction potential."
The pH of tap water is about pH 7 or neutral. When tap water is electrolyzed into ionized water, its reduced water has a pH of about 9 and the oxidized water a pH of about 4. Even if you make alkaline water of pH 9 by adding sodium hydroxide or make acidic water of pH 3 by adding hydrogen chloride, you will find very little change in the ORP values of the two waters. On the other hand, when you divide tap water with electrolysis you can see the ORP fluctuate by as much as + -1,000mV. By electrolysis we can obtain reduced water with negative potential that is good for the body.
USING IONIZED WATER - What Ionized Water Does
The water ionizer produces two kinds of water with different redox potentials, one with a high reduction potential and the other with a high oxidation potential.
When taken internally, the reduced alkaline ionized water with its redox potential of-250 to -350 mV readily donates its electrons to oddball oxygen radicals and blocks the interaction of the active oxygen with normal molecules.
A biological molecule (BM) remains intact and undamaged.
BM-e || MW-e + AO —> MW + AO-e
Undamaged biological molecules are less susceptible to infection and disease. The alkaline ionized water gives up an extra electron and reduces the active oxygen (AO), thus rendering it harmless. The AO is reduced without damaging surrounding biological molecules. Substances which have the ability to counteract active oxygen by supplying electrons are called scavengers. Reduced water, therefore, can be called scavenging water.
When taken internally, the effects of reduced water are immediate. Ionized water inhibits excessive fermentation in the digestive tract by reducing indirectly metabolites such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, histamines, indoles, phenols and scatoles, resulting in a cleaner stool within days after reduced water is taken on a regular basis. In 1965 the Ministry of Welfare of Japan announced that reduced water obtained from electrolysis can prevent abnormal fermentation of intestinal microbes.
Oxidized water with its redox potential of + 700 to + 800 mV is an oxidizing agent that can withdraw electrons from bacteria and kill them. The oxidized water from the ionizer can be used to clean hands, kitchen utensils, fresh vegetables and fruits, and to sterilize cutting boards and minor wounds. Tests have shown that oxidized water can be used effectively to treat athlete's foot, minor burns, insect bites, scratches, and so on.
Dr. Yoshiaki Matsuo, Vice Director of the Water Institute of Japan, has developed another apparatus capable of producing hyper-oxidized water with a redox potential of +1,050 mV or more and of pH lower than 2.7. Tests have shown that this hyper-oxidized water can quickly destroy MRSA (Methecillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus).
Although hyper-oxidized water is a powerful sterilizing agent, it won't harm the skin. In fact, it can be used to heal. Hyper-oxidized water has proven effective in Japanese hospitals in the treatment of bedsores and operative wounds with complicated infections.
But perhaps the most exciting future application of hyper-oxidized water is in the field of agriculture where it is has been used effectively on plants to kill fungi and other plant diseases. Hyper-oxidized water is non-toxic, so agricultural workers can apply it without wearing special protective equipment because there is no danger of skin or respiratory damage. An added benefit of using hyper-oxidized water to spray plants is that there is no danger to the environment caused by the accumulation of toxic chemicals in the ground.
Today we read much about correct dieting principles and paying attention to what we eat in order to stay healthy. This is a sensible practice, but it is surprising that many of us don't realize that the bulk of what we eat is composed of water. Vegetables and fruits are 90% water; fish and meat are about 70% water as well.
Even advocates of the importance of vitamin C in diet staples have to admit that its potency, namely, the redox potential of this important vitamin, rapidly diminishes with age and preparation for the dining table. Carbohydrates, the main consistent of vegetables and fruit, has molecular weight of 180 whereas water has a much lower molecular weight of 18.
Molecular Weight Compared
Alkaline Ionized Water
Alkaline ionized water, with its low molecular weight and high reduction potential, makes it a superior scavenging agent of active oxygen. But electrolysis inside the ionizer not only charges the reduced water with electrons, it also reduces the size of reduced water molecule clusters.
NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) analysis reveals that tap water and well water consists of clusters of 10 to 13 H20 molecules. Electrolysis of water in the ionizer reduces these clusters to about half their normal size - 5 to 6 water molecules per cluster.
As the graph shows, the NMR signal that measures cluster size by line width at half-amplitude shows 65 Hz for reduced water and 133 Hz for tap water, revealing that the reduced water clusters are approximately half the size of tap water clusters.
This is why ionized water is more readily absorbed by the body than untreated tap water. Alkaline ionized water quickly permeates the body and blocks the oxidation of biological molecules by donating its abundant electrons to active oxygen, enabling biological molecules to replace themselves naturally without damage caused by oxidation that can cause diseases.
Summary and Conclusions
According to Dr. Hidemitsu Hayashi, Director of the water Institute of Japan, "To eliminate the pollutants in a large stream that is contaminated as its source, we must work on the problem upstream at the headwaters - the source of the pollution - not downstream where we can only try to treat the evidence of damage caused by the pollution. Ionized water's contribution to preventative medicine is essentially upstream treatment."
We consider the digestive tract upstream where we intake water and food. Although many people today in developed countries are growing more skeptical about what they eat, they tend to concentrate more on what the food contains rather than the metabolized products of foods in the digestive tract.
For example, consider the typical balanced diet of meat and vegetables. Meat protein is metabolized into amines while nitrates form fertilizers used to grow vegetables metabolize into nitrites in the digestive tract. These amines and nitrites combine to form nitrosamine, a recognized carcinogen.
We've already discussed that odoriferous feces are evidence of excessive fermentation in the digestive tract, so reduced water performs a very important function upstream in the digestive tract by reducing this excessive fermentation as evidence by cleaner stools within days of starting a steady regimen of reduced water.
Reduced water supplies electrons to excess, active oxygen free radicals produced as a result of aerobic metabolism and reduces them, rendering them harmless.
Downstream from the digestive tract, starting at the liver, reduced water quickly enters the liver and other organs due to, first, its lower molecular weight, and, secondly, the size of its clusters. At tissue sites throughout the body, reduced water with its safe, yet potent reduction potential readily donates its passenger electrons freely to active oxygen and neutralizes them so they cannot damage the molecules of healthy cells. Normal cells are protected from the electron thievery of active oxygen and allowed to grow, mature, function and regenerate without interference from rogue, oddball oxygen radicals which tend to steal the electrons from he molecules of normal, healthy biological molecules.
We are now in the midst of a water boom. In Japan and other countries consumers are buying various kinds of bottled and canned water even though water is one of our most abundant vital resources. Research data reveals that mineral waters have an CRP of +200 mV, slightly lower than the +400 mV measured for ordinary tap water. We can say that at least mineral water is marginally better than tap water from the viewpoint of ORP. Compared to any processed water for sale, however, alkaline ionized water with its reduction potential of -250 to -300 mV is beyond comparison due to its ability to scavenge active oxygen radicals.
Hidemitsu Hayashi, M.D.
Director, Water Institute
Nisshin Building, 2-5-10 Shinjiku,
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan 160